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The study was conducted in —09 in two rural communities in Upper Egypt and a large slum area in Cairo. Qualitative data were collected from women and 99 men through focus group discussions and interviews. The clitoris was perceived to be important to, and a source of, sexual desire rather than sexual pleasure. Men and women framed sexual pleasure differently, however.

While men, especially younger men, considered sexual satisfaction as a cornerstone of marital happiness, women considered themselves sexually satisfied if there was marital harmony and their socio-economic situation was satisfactory. However, sexual problems, including lack of pleasure in sex and sexual dissatisfaction, for whatever reasons, were widespread.

El estudio fue realizado en —09 en dos comunidades rurales en Alto Egipto y en una amplia zona de barrios bajos del Cairo. Se recolectaron datos cualitativos de mujeres y 99 hombres, por medio de discusiones en grupos focales y entrevistas. Girls in Egypt usually undergo the procedure prior to or around puberty. The most common forms fit into two of the four types classified by the World Health Organization WHO : Type I removal of part or all of the clitoris and Type II removal of the labia minora and part or all of the clitoris.

The main motivation reported Woman want real sex Egypt for the practice in Egypt is to maintain the tradition and adhere to what people think is a religious requirement, as well as husband's preference for circumcised wives, and to prevent illicit sexual behaviour in women, particularly premarital and extra-marital sex. Efforts to combat the practice in Egypt date back to the s, beginning mostly with individual initiatives.

The first conference to publicly address the issue was held in by the Cairo Family Planning Association, a leading non-governmental organization NGO. Since then, more NGOs have added the issue to their agendas, and community efforts have expanded to combat it. The project is currently present in villages in different Egyptian governorates. Inthe news of two girls who died as a result of circumcision was widely publicized.

However, several other cases have been reported and are currently being investigated by district attorneys in several governorates Fouad, National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, Personal communication, In Egypt, concerns over the consequences of the practice for women's sexuality have been mentioned in articles and books by Egyptian feminists, such as Nawal El-Sadawi.

We set out to do so.

Woman want real sex Egypt

We have followed the path of many anthropologists, in that context is considered the main parameter for the construction of sexuality. However, most of them did not associate circumcision with what they were experiencing. Marital disharmony and socio-economic pressures were blamed instead. However, our substantiate the proposition that a woman whose genital tissues have been partly removed is more likely to experience increased pain and reduction in sexual satisfaction and desire.

Although Arab feminists use the term genisawaya to refer to sexuality, this usage does Woman want real sex Egypt exist beyond academia and intellectual circles. Instead, we found that people used phrases like genss sexneek sexual intercoursemotta'a pleasureshahwa desireand motta'a gensiya sexual pleasure. Data were mainly collected through focus groups and in-depth interviews. To enrich the data set, a total of six case studies, and four inter-generational life histories were conducted; in these interviews we pursued the deeper and personal meaning and experiences of the issues.

The findings of the case studies and life histories will be presented elsewhere. A total of 25 focus group discussions were conducted in the three sites, 13 with women and 12 with men, with 94 women and 93 men. The groups were divided by age in order to see whether a difference in thinking had developed over time. Six groups were with women over 35 years of age, seven with women under 35, six with men over 35 and six with men under Each group included educated and non-educated participants, and mixed Moslems and Christians.

The vast majority of the women participating were circumcised. In addition, 31 in-depth interviews were conducted in the three sites: eight with women, six with men, four with community leaders, six with religious leaders, and seven with circumcisers and health providers. The study was conducted in three sites: one slum area in Cairo, and two villages in Al Minya Governorate around km south of Cairo. The study locations were selected in consultation with local NGOs. The research team selected three NGOs to assist in the process of site selection and recruitment of the study participants.

The NGOs were selected based on their and current reputation, diversity of programmes in different communities, relationship with local authorities, and willingness to cooperate with the research Woman want real sex Egypt. The recruited participants were selected from the selected communities by the respective NGOs, based on pre-set criteria such as age, marital status and willingness to participate in the research.

Participants in the case studies and inter-generational life histories were random members of the communities who fulfilled the research criteria. The majority of women participating in the study were either not literate, just able to read and write, or had primary education. The male participants generally had a slightly higher level of education. All the women involved in the study were or had been married at some point, while men were married or non married, it is socially unacceptable to ask women who have never married about their sexual experiences.

All the participants were informed of the objectives of the research, as well as the time that they would be expected to spend with the research team. Verbal consent was obtained prior to all in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, case studies, and intergenerational histories. Tapes and notes were locked in a special compartment with access only for the research team. Because of the sensitivity of the research topics, interviews with women were conducted by a female member of the research team while interviews with men were conducted by a man.

The research team had two doctors who offered to help with any medical problems, questions or concerns the participants might have during the course of the study. Furthermore, those with gynaecological problems were referred for free examination and treatment as required. The study received ethical approval from the World Health Organization and an internal ethical committee of the Cairo Family Planning and Development Association. All data were collected in January and February ; the analysis was completed in the first half of The main reason given for supporting the practice was to reduce and regulate girls' and women's sexual desires and sexual drive.

The clitoris was seen as the site of such strong sexual urges that its presence would make it difficult for women to resist sexual overtures from men. The belief that the clitoris is the seat of sexual desire was the basis of the belief that an intact clitoris created the risk of women losing their virginity before marriage, which is immensely important in Egypt at both a religious and social level.

The focus group discussions also revealed a widespread fear among men that if their wives had not undergone circumcision, the strength of their sexual desire within marriage could also be a risk, that women's sexual demands would be beyond their capacity, with the associated risk that wives might feel the need to engage in extra-marital relations, e. However, the majority of men and women interviewed said they did not consider the clitoris important for achieving women's sexual satisfaction.

In this study, however, neither men nor women described circumcision as a prerequisite for marriage, nor linked the two directly. Taking the initiative to have sex is often used as an expression of the extent of women's sexual desire. Hence, measurement of this is believed to say something about women desire for and pleasure in sex. It was generally considered unacceptable for women to make direct overtures, instead the man was expected to do this, and even to beg for it. It became clear in these conversations that while men are encouraged to express and celebrate their sexual pleasure through physical parameters, women are not.

However, it was considered acceptable, and even desirable, for women to express their availability or interest in sex in a subtle manner, thereby encouraging their husbands to initiate sex. Men and women mentioned various ways in which a woman could entice her husband or show her availability. Activities such as having a shower, preparing a good meal, dressing in special clothes, or walking in a special way were all understood as means women could use.

At the same time, it was not considered appropriate for a woman to refuse sex when their husbands requested it. Both men and women in general considered complying with men's desire for sex as a woman's duty, and in line with Islamic teaching. Some focus groups of men aged over 35 noted that women refusing to have sex without physical reason is not accepted and a woman could be beaten for it.

In response to our questions on sexual pleasure, men, especially younger men, directly connected sexual pleasure to the sexual act itself intercourse and saw sexual pleasure as a cornerstone of their marital happiness. For the men, an important reason for marrying was for sex, and being sexually happy meant they were happy in marriage. While they wanted their wives to have undergone the procedure for its perceived beneficial effects on women's sexual morality, they perceived and lamented a negative effect on sexual pleasure.

For, in contrast to the women, some of the men, particularly the younger ones, did believe this occurred. The concern was that it might reduce wives' sexual desire and ability to be sexually engaged, i. In contrast to the men, the women generally defined sexual pleasure, satisfaction and happiness within a broader social context such as having a caring and kind husband, happy children and economic needs fulfilled, and in close relation to men's sexual satisfaction. Rather, they said they bore with this as a marital duty and fulfilment of religious obligations.

Some also said their husbands had said they might take another wife if they did not have sex with them. And the book says do not steal each other's right. A woman has the right to desire her husband. A woman could be circumcised but have a very strong sexual desire; or, she could be uncircumcised and have no desire. This needs a medical study. When she has the desire, she does not get satisfied. In these cases, I talk to the man and ask him to cope with the situation and advise him that circumcision is wrong and he has to accept his wife as she is. Another comes complaining that her sexual life Woman want real sex Egypt her husband is cold, she is afraid he might take another wife.

Another asks me for medicines to increase her sexual feeling. This causes problems between the couple. On the other hand, the younger respondents seemed to be opposed to several harmful traditional practices affecting women, including dokhla baladi virginity testingand expressed more support than the older respondents for girls' education and women's work. This study points to certain key issues that need to be taken into consideration in future interventions, starting with the gendered way in which sexuality is constructed by both women and men, and influenced not only by their personal experience, but also by their socioeconomic situation.

In a study in Egypt, 37 women related their sexual problems most often to socioeconomic circumstances. Like the women in our study, many reported that they engaged in sexual activity for marital commitment, religious and financial reasons, and to reduce the risk of husbands engaging in extramarital relationships.

Men are thus in a quite equivocal position — on the one hand concerned that women's pleasure in sex is reduced, thus hindering their own pleasure, and on the Woman want real sex Egypt hand worried that uncircumcised women will be too sexually demanding, endangering their control over the sexual relationship.

Woman want real sex Egypt

The expressions of resistance to political interventions imply that, although important, the newly introduced legislation alone may not be able to stop the practice. Experience from interventions in both Egypt and other countries suggest that political commitment must be combined by strong advocacy and education programmes at both national and community levels, within a package of education and training to eliminate other harmful traditional practices, such as early marriage and domestic violence.

Most Egyptians are avid TV watchers, and keen on movies and drama. It seems paramount also to include these perspectives in the training of health care providers and those involved in interventions against the practice in Egyptian communities. In addition, those personnel expected to enforce the law, such as police, attorneys and social workers, need to be made aware of these issues. Many thanks to R Elise B Johansen, whose editorial support was invaluable. The Cairo Family Planning and Development Association managed the financial and administrative parts of the study.

The research team is indebted to the two research assistants who helped tremendously with collecting the data and the process of transcription: Mrs Naglaa Fathy and Mr Mohamed Darwish. Many thanks also to Dr Shereen El Feki for valuable remarks and assistance and editing the final report. A New View of a Woman's Body. Feminist Press, USA, Recommended articles lists articles Woman want real sex Egypt we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations. Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab.

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Advanced search. Reproductive Health Matters An international journal on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Submit an article Journal home. s Published online: 24 Nov Original Articles.

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