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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and of partner smay affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1 minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2 higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3 depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4 minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes.
Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness H1. Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness H2.
These suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. The current study focuses on the mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors on differences in depression and alcohol use across intimate relationship status among bisexual women residing in the United States U. Given the location of our study, the review of published work focuses on U.
We anticipate that these relationships may also exist within other countries that have similar sociocultural emphases on opposite-gender relationships and monogamy e. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT populations experience multiple forms of discrimination at internalized, interpersonal, and systemic levels in U. Traditional gender beliefs and values in the U. Bisexual populations further represent a distinctive threat to traditional gender norms, values, and practices, due to their range of intimate partners, and deviation from U.
Their fluidity in sexual attraction, identity, and behavior, including engagement in heterosexual activity, also represent a challenge among U. Bisexual populations thus represent a unique group to understand if and how U. Notably, one's exposure to minority stressors as a bisexual individual may be related to one's visibility as a bisexual individual and, specifically, their current intimate relationship status, including partner and gender s. For example, bisexual women in relationships with multiple female and male Baltimore bi fem looking for single bi f may have greater visibility as a bisexual individual than bisexual women with a single male or female partner, which in turn may influence their experiences with stigma, outness as a sexual minority, and internalized stigma.
Given this, mental health problems and substance use may vary across current intimate relationship status among bisexual women, and minority stressors may mediate these differences. The current web-based U. Bisexual women's exposure to minority stressors in the U.
Bisexual women with a single intimate partner may be more likely to be perceived to be a heterosexual woman or a lesbian than to be perceived as a bisexual woman. For example, bisexual women in a relationship with a single male partner may be perceived as heterosexual.
This may result in greater discrimination from heterosexual individuals, but potentially less discrimination from LGBT communities. The and gender s of partners are further likely to have complex interactive effects on bisexual women's exposure to minority stressors. Polyamory as a relationship structure is as common among bisexual individuals as it is among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual individuals Weber, and bisexual women with multiple male or multiple female partners are likely to experience the stigmas associated with polygamy Mint, ; Klesse, UK; Ross et al.
Nonetheless, bisexuality may be most visible among women who have multiple partners and whose partners are female and male. This greater exposure to experienced binegativity may further lead to greater internalized bi-negativity Herek et al. Several minority stress theories have elucidated the potential adverse impacts of minority stressors on health outcomes Hatzenbuehler, ; Meyer, Further, empirical evidence has demonstrated minority stressors are associated with poorer outcomes, including greater depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes in the U.
Brewster et al. King et al. Among bisexual populations, experiences with stigmatizing events has been associated with psychological distress in quantitative and qualitative studies Brewster et al. Outness and internalized bi-negativity have also been associated with worse mental health outcomes Brewster et al.
Limited literature exists concerning health outcomes across current intimate relationship status. The two available studies suggest bisexual women who have been involved intimately with a male partner are more likely to experience worse mental health and illicit substance use than bisexual women with female partners Dyar et al. Notably, this research has often dichotomized relationship status, by examining women with a single male or female partner Dyar et al.
More research is warranted to assess differences in health across bisexual women's current intimate relationship status, especially across both partner gender andgiven theory and literature described above with regard to differences in exposure to minority stressors and associations of minority stressors to health outcomes.
In support of this, a recent study found bisexual women with a single male partner reported higher amounts of depressive symptoms, in part due to greater discrimination from LGBT communities Dyar et al. The current study tested several hypotheses concerning current intimate relationship status, minority stressors, and health outcomes among a sample of bisexual women. H1: Minority stressors will vary across current intimate relationship status.
H1a: We first test examine partner gender among women with a single partner. We predict that women with a single male partner may exhibit lower experienced bi-negativity and outness as well as greater internalized bi-negativity relative to women with a single female partner. H2: Minority stressors will be associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes. Given literature described above, we predict greater experienced bi-negativity and internalized bi-negativity will be associated with greater depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes.
Further, we test if outness may have linear and non-linear effects with depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes. We conduct multivariable linear regressions with depressive symptoms and alcohol-related consequences as outcomes and a logistic regression with binge drinking as the outcome. For all regression models, minority stressors are included as independent variables experienced bi-negativity, outness, internalized bi-negativity. H3: Depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes will vary across current intimate relationship status.
H3a: We first predict bisexual women with single male partners will exhibit greater depressive symptoms and negative alcohol-related outcomes relative to women with a single female partner. We test these hypotheses by conducting multivariate analyses of co-variance MANCOVA with depressive symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and logistic regression with binge drinking as the outcome. H4: We hypothesize that minority stressors will mediate differences in depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes by current intimate relationship status.
Specifically, we hypothesize that differences described in H3a and b will be mediated by differences in experienced bi-negativity, outness, and internalized bi-negativity described in H1 and H2. As part of a larger study, participants were recruited using 10 different advertisements on the social networking site Facebook. The advertisements were divided into LGB-specific and non-LGB specific content and were displayed in the sidebar of Facebook for sponsored advertisements only to women who met eligibility criteria, based on their Facebook profile between the ages ofendorsed interest in relationships with women in their Facebook profile, female.
Interested participants could respond to the by phone, or clicking on the advertisement this would take them to the screening assessment. Cities were selected based on geographic range to sample various regions of the United States. A brief information statement was shown to participants who agreed to participate in the 5-minute screening assessment. A total of 4, women completed the screening survey; 1, women were deemed eligible to participate in the study. Eligibility criteria included women who a lived in the United States, b had a valid address, c were between the ages of 18 and 25, and d self-identified as lesbian or bisexual woman at the time of the assessment.
Eligible participants were sent two s, one with the URL for the baseline survey followed by a separate with a personal identification. Duplicate respondents were checked for using first and last name, birth date, mailing address, and phone. If duplicate data were found, the participant was informed that we could only accept one set of data from each individual. Custom survey programming eliminated the possibility of a participant using the same address more than once, wherein individuals attempting to enter the same e-mail were given an automatized error message.
Neither the of attempts to enter the same or multiple e-mail addresses from the same participant was tracked.
Participants viewed a full consent form for the study after logging in to take the minute baseline survey. Upon agreement, they were administered the survey. Those who did not complete the baseline survey were reminded through an additional and phone call. Only baseline survey data are used in the current study. For the current study, we only included women who 1 identified as a bisexual woman; and 2 indicated they were in an intimate relationship at the time of assessment.
Table 1 depicts socio-demographic characteristics for the analytic sample. Analyses compare the following groups: single female partner, single male partner, and multiple female and male partners. Operationalization of current intimate relationship status took several steps. First, women were asked what their current intimate relationship status was Single, Dating one person, Dating more than one person, In a committed relationship with one partner, In a committed relationship with more than one partner, Other.
Women who indicated they were single were excluded from the analyses, given that the purpose of this study was to examine the gender and of current intimate partner s. Notably, no women reported dating multiple male-only partners or multiple female-only partners all respondents endorsing multiple partners identified male and female partners. Given this, we could not disentangle the effect of partner gender and of partners. To develop these measures, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with ethnically diverse LGBT adults in urban e.
Individuals were ased to focus groups according to identity and geographic location. Subsequently, items were tested, refined, and validated through two national web-based surveys. BMSS items were not refined across surveys, as they exhibited adequate psychometric properties with both of the Rainbow Project national web-based samples. All data from our own sample were examined through scree plots, eigenvalues, parallel analysis, and Cronbach's alphas, which suggested a 1-factor solution best fit the data.
For our sample, all items of the BMSS had factor loadings of 0. This questionnaire was developed to assess the degree to which LGB populations are open about their sexual orientation and has been validated throughout a of studies Beaber, ; Swearingen, For our data, parallel analyses and exploratory factor analyses revealed comparable factor structure as studies, with items loading on their relevant factors with a value of 0. In line with standard scoring for this instrument, the overall summary score was calculated as the average of the three subscales, such that the greater the score, the greater the degree of outness.
Parallel analyses and exploratory factor analyses on our data revealed comparable 1-factor structure as Baltimore bi fem looking for single bi f, with factor loadings greater than 0. Items were averaged to create summary scores, such that greater values indicated more internalized bi-negativity. Overall summary scores were calculated as the sum of all items, wherein a greater score indicates more depressive symptoms.
How much alcohol, on average measured in the of drinksdo YOU drink on each day of a typical week? Responses were summed for the mean weekly drinking quantity. With regard to our data, parallel analyses and exploratory factor analyses revealed comparable factor structure with regard to the overall and eight subscales as studies, with items loading on their relevant factors with a value of 0. The overall scale was the sum of these dichotomous items. Preliminary analysis revealed this measure was not normally distributed and was square-root transformed for further analyses.
The analytic sample included women who 1 identified as bisexual; and 2 reported they were in a relationship.
Subsequent post-hoc comparisons found African American participants to exhibit more internalized bi-negativity relative to White participants. The adjusted means and standard deviations for minority stressors across current intimate relationship status are presented in Table 3. Minority stressors, depressive symptoms, and alcohol-related outcomes by current intimate relationship status. Our second set of hypotheses concerned associations of minority stressors, depressive symptoms, and alcohol-related outcomes.
Formal tests for multicollinearity revealed VIF values ranging between 1. Standardized coefficients and odds ratios are used as measures of effect size. We also examined linear and non-linear relationships between outness, depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes across current intimate relationship status are presented in Table 3.
We only examined the mediating effects of experienced bi-negativity, given it was the only minority stressor that varied across current intimate relationship status and was associated with outcomes.Baltimore bi fem looking for single bi f
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