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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Background: Many aspects affect precision sports like shooting. Skills such as strength and balance are related to shooting performance and therefore, they should be trained.
Thus, planned physical workouts can help to improve Olympic Shooting performance. Methods: Eight elite international shooters were interviewed using a semi-structured script validated by an expert shooting committee. Their responses were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. : The suggest that athletes consider physical training as a key factor in their performance. Shooters mainly train strength and endurance exercises, depending on the competitions schedule.
However, no consensus exists regarding the professional in charge of fitness trainings, nor the recovery methods to minimize performance losses. In addition, general balance trainings or physical condition tests to evaluate the training progress do not seem to be used. Conclusion: We conclude that there should be greater control of fitness training and recovery processes in Olympic shooting. Olympic shooting demands a high level of precision, constancy and stability from the shooter [ 1 ]. In fact, the precision levels are so high that angular errors higher than 0.
studies have suggested the importance of supporting psychological training [ 4 ] and fitness training [ 5 ] to improve performance and for shooters to reach their maximum level. It seems logical to think that the fitness training importance on performance could be a critical aspect of shooting [ 467 ]. However, the specific bibliography in this field is limited and differ according to different Looking to train female shooter.
Regardless of this fact, it is difficult to find specific guidelines about how to train fitness in Olympic shooting. Most of the published literature suggests general guidelines without explaining the intensity or the effects of FT [ 4 ].
Other authors have suggested the need to hire fitness professional support services to avoid performance losses [ 12 ]. The fitness trainer should guide the activities of the shooter obeying the biological, methodological and pedagogical principles to achieve the highest levels of efficiency and performance [ 1213 ].
According to the study of Krasilshchikov, Zuraidee and Singh [ 6 ], both fitness and technical training should be worked on simultaneously to improve the stability of the pistol [ 15 ]. The main FT objectives should be to support the technical training, to overcome competitive stress and to improve the self-image of the shooter [ 12 ]. Nevertheless, the literature does not provide clear information about the duration or intensity of the FT.
Regarding main motor abilities, strength [ 517 ], coordination [ 1 ], balance [ 1819 ] and endurance [ 20 ] seem to be important physical capacities that affect shooting performance. On the other hand, a recovery process is necessary after FT. Resting periods help the body to return to the initial state and to recover the normal levels of homeostasis. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prescription has been described for this sport yet. Active recoveries have been suggested as the best method in clay shooting. Nevertheless, the consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks did not preserve marksmanship accuracy after exercise in other studies [ 24 ].
Fitness evaluation and testing during the training process is important for Looking to train female shooter coach to know the level of performance. Unfortunately, which fitness test are the most accurate is not clear. Studies with a medical-sports character referred to the use of stress tests to determine cardio-circulatory parameters [ 26 ]. On the order hand, scientific studies used balance tests [ 3 ], the flexor finger strength test [ 27 ], the shoulder abductor strength test [ 5 ] or even endurance, reaction speed or coordination tests [ 7 ] to determine the fitness level of the shooter.
Finally, the literature specialized in shooting refers to strength tests push-upst mobility tests and endurance tests time to perform 2 km to evaluate physical condition [ 12 ]. Moreover, related to physical training influence on the psychological stateit is known that certain psychological aspects influence the performance in shooting anxiety or self—confidence [ 28 ] as well as some mental states e.
Notwithstanding all the aspects mentioned above, many questions are still unanswered. What are the perceptions of elite shooters in terms of the importance of physical training? Do athletes think that is necessary to hire professional fitness support services? What types of exercises are preferred by the shooters before the competitions? What types of recovery processes are used by the elite shooters? Are the fitness evaluation tests used in shooting sport to control the performance?
And lastly, do the shooters think that exercise influences the psychological aspects? Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the importance of psychological components from the perspective of the athletes themselves. Eight Olympic shooters 4 men, 4 women from four different nationalities Spain 3, Portugal 2, Brazil 2 and Mexico 1 were recruited for the present study.
Participants were selected using both social networks and coaches and shooters contacts [ 3233 ]. Invitations were sent to all Looking to train female shooter shooters informing them about the nature and purpose of the study. Informed consent attached in Supplementary Materials was obtained from each participant before the interviews. In order to ensure that athletes were elite shooters with great international experience, two selection criteria were used: A have participated at least once in the Olympic Games and B meet at least one of the following requirements: B1 have been selected by their country to participate more than 50 times in top-level competitions and having been a finalist at least one time or B2 have participated more than 30 times in top-level competitions and having been a medalist once or more times.
The competition data of the shooters were obtained from the official web of the International Sport Shooting Federation [ 34 ]. Participants profiles, of participations in first level international competitions, times finalist and medals.
Note: Abbreviations. The authors certify that the present study was carried out in the absence of any potential conflict of interest. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Polytechnical University of Madrid. The interviews were standardized by using a semi—structured script in order to minimize possible bias. The script questions were deed for both shooters with and without fitness training Table 2always from the perspective of the athletes.
The script included open questions related to several knowledge topics according to the existing scientific literature [ 1935 ]. The selection of the questions was made by consensus [ 36 ] of 2 researches who were expert shooting coaches with international experience and subsequently, two external international referees one expert in qualitative methods and one expert in shooting sport tly reviewed the interviews until obtaining the final version of the interview script. Once the final version of the interviews was obtained, it was tested twice in a pilot study to determine the reliability.
A total of 8 semi-structured interviews were conducted by two researchers, who were also Olympic shooting specialists with international experience as coaches, which allowed us to use more specific terminology associated with shooting and generate a relaxed atmosphere with the interviewees. A single interview per day was scheduled to avoid possible fatigue. Comfortable and quiet places were selected.
One week before the interview, the script was sent to the athletes so that they could respond critically to the last question or suggest new questions. The interviews were conducted by Skype due to distance. Interviews had an average duration of 64 min the minimum duration was 40 and the maximum 86 min. Initial were thought to be related to the script interview. Moreover, after interpreting the interviews, the final of the study were obtained. Subsequently, from the analysis of the answers related to fitness training, the following were obtained: Fitness training importance on performance, fitness professional support, precompetitive fitness exercises orientation and intensity, main motor abilities, recovery process, fitness evaluation and test and physical training influence on the psychological state.
This study used qualitative methods that involved an explorative approach to inquiry Fletcher and Arnold, The analysis of the data was conducted in four phases: I a full transcription of the interviews, II a meticulous selection of the phrases and words, III elaboration of each category and IV a summary of the answers according to each category. An analysis of the transcribed texts was carried out with a Nvivo v. The transcription was made by the same two Looking to train female shooter who made the interviews and revised by a third one as referee.
Two researchers analyzed the verbal reports separately and subsequently and both scientists selected the from inductive and deductive analysis [ 3839 ]. Cross-triangulation was made by two researchers.
In case of discrepancy only in one categorya third investigator acted as referee. Once the were determined, all the concepts, words and phrases were ordered in their respective and quantified. The of the present study were divided into seven different related with shooting fitness training. All the athletes referred to the benefits of participating in a fitness program. Even athlete 1, who did not perform any activity, and athlete 5, who rarely practiced, pointed out the importance of good fitness.
This concept seems relevant to shooters since the idea of fitness training importance appears on several occasions during the interviews see Table 3. I attribute a lot importance. However, I cannot execute any physical routine in my training…. With technical training only, there comes a point where you do not keep Looking to train female shooter up and cannot improve, then you have to find other methods to improve point by point and one of them is physical and psychological training.
It is very important. Most of the shooters I have met, they do physical and psychological training To reach the highest level, you have to complete the technical training with the other two trainings, physical and psychological. Athlete 1 was the exception, declaring himself physically capable of supporting the demands of competition and achieving without training physical aspects.
Both the fitness trainer and the physiotherapist were mentioned equally by the shooters when referring to fitness trainings competences see Table 3.
Thus, athletes 3 and 8 were currently working with a fitness trainer in shooting, athlete 4 had a physical trainer during the years and nowadays, works in a self-taught way and shooter 6 works with a physiotherapist who is in direct communication with specialists in physical education. Yes, a physical trainer Right now, I am the person in charge, I am the one who do my technical and physical preparation About what is physical preparation, I have been studying for many years about it and now I develop my own physical preparation.
On the other hand, shooter 7 did not have a physical trainer. He always had physical training due to his work as air force officer. However, nowadays, he has strength training guided by a gym instructor and the help of a physiotherapist family member.
Finally, athletes 1 and 5 acknowledged not practicing any physical activity. In the military academy I had a guy who was preparing my exercises sets For athlete 3, fitness exercises have two goals: activity oriented towards competition and strength training for injury prevention. According to this shooter, the large amount of technical training allowed him to maintain efficiently the specific endurance.
Otherwise, athlete 8 practiced complementary physical activity, but without regularity. Not regularly. Since I am shooter, I have not worked constantly due to reasons of time, purely and simply Yes, I am training with a physical trainer Currently I do some exercises for shooting, I do some exercises to avoid injuries that can appear with the shooting practice. Regarding the intensity of the physical training, most of the interviewees thought that the training had to be well scheduled and had to stop during the moments before the competitions, although they also indicated that the performance was not negatively modified by physical training.Looking to train female shooter
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