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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The data underlying this study is subject to third-party restrictions by the Turkey Statistical Institute. Data area available from the Turkish Statistical Institute rt. The authors of the study did not receive any special privileges in accessing the data. In the study, women in the 15—24, 25—34 and 35—44 age group had a higher ratio of exposure to economic violence compared to the reference group. Women who graduated from elementary school, secondary school, and high school had a higher ratio of exposure to economic violence compared to those who have never gone to school.
The obtained in this study are important in that they can be a source of information for establishing policies and programs to prevent violence against women. This study can also be a ificant guide in determining priority areas for the resolution of economic violence against women. One of the most common forms of violence against women is violence perpetrated by a husband or other male partner. Intimate partner violence IPVoften referred to as domestic violence, takes several forms [ 1 ]. In the literature, it is stated that there are four different types of non-physical violence: emotional, psychological, social and economic violence [ 3 ].
Physical and sexual violence, however, refers to the type of violence related to physical intervention against women [ 24 ]. IPV is a comprehensive and multi-directional social problem associated with various health and social consequences. IPV against women is a common and ificant public health issue [ 5 — 7 ]. Globally, it is estimated that one in three women have been subjected to intimate partner violence at some point in their lives, but these estimations vary widely between countries [ 8 — 11 ].
Violence against women is considered a serious violation of human rights [ 12 — 14 ]. The fact that intimate partner violence is a major social issue affecting a large of women and children is now undeniable [ 15 ]. One domain of intimate partner violence is economic violence [ 17 ]. Economic violence is often considered within the scope of emotional or psychological violence [ 318 ].
But recently, scholars have begun to define economic violence as a unique form of violence [ 3 ]. Economic abuse is a unique and mandatory form of control behavior that the abuser uses in an intimate relationship other than physical, Canakkale single women and psychological abuse [ 19 ]. Since economic violence is an important aspect of IPV, studies that Canakkale single women economic violence miss an important factor [ 20 ]. Briefly, economic violence is a field of research that has emerged recently [ 21 ]. In order to develop a more comprehensive assessment of the experience of economic violence, scholars have begun to develop economic violence scales and sub-scales [ 3 ].
First, the two sub-dimensional economic control and economic exploitation Scale of Economic Abuse SEA was developed to measure economic violence [ 22 ]. Later, this scale was revised, and three sub-dimensions economic control, employment sabotage, and economic exploitation were added to the Scale of Economic Abuse SEA [ 23 ]. The validity and reliability of SEA were also tested [ 24 ]. In another study conducted in China, the Chinese version of the SEA was adapted, and its validity and reliability were tested [ 19 ].
Economic abuse can a very powerful tactic in manipulating, dominating and controlling a person for the purpose of encouraging dependence or abusing them financially [ 21 ]. Economic violence focuses on creating economic dependence on the perpetrator. Economic violence against women is characterized by male partners, who have absolute control over financial resources, keep financial resources or refuse to contribute financially to their female partners, thus leading women to complete dependence for their most basic needs and satisfaction [ 27 ].
There are many types of economic violence against women. Tactics such as intervention at work, preventing the spouse from working outside of the Canakkale single women or the community, harassing or disturbing the spouse in her workplace, preventing or limiting education, regulating access to money or refusing access to financial information, stopping or restricting funds necessary for needs such as food and clothing, stealing money from spouse, refusing to work and the creating debt on the part of the woman, dominating family economy by making unilateral decisions, ruining the credit note of woman on purpose are economic violence behaviors [ 1824 — 2628 — 30 ].
Behaviors such as taking jewelry given to woman at the wedding ceremony and asking for bride price and dowry are also considered as economic violence [ 28 ]. These strategies are used by men to maintain economic control and assert their dominance in the domestic environment, putting women in secondary positions [ 31 ]. Exposure to economic violence is related to public health, as it threatens the economic security and independence of the victim, limits the capacity to leave abusive relationships, and potentially le to adverse mental health effects [ 25 ].
This, in turn, poses a critical obstacle for many women who try to leave their abusive partners [ 32 ]. According to marital dependency theory and interdependence theory, women who are forced into economic dependence are at risk of being stuck in a relationship. In fact, economic violence reduces trust and women who are not currently married but are living with a male partner may be less likely to take these steps [ 2033 ].
Like all other intimate partner abuse and violence, economic abuse is a social problem as well as a ificant element of a personal relationship [ 21 ]. Economic violence is associated with depression and anxiety [ 4 ]. Higher levels of economic violence are associated with a greater increase in depression [ 3035 — 37 ]. Economic violence plays an important role in the psychological well-being of IPV victims; thus the inclusion of economic violence in the measurement of IPV is beneficial [ 5 ].
Economic violence has harmful consequences for the economic and psychological well-being of victims. Economic violence has recently been associated with increased symptoms of depression and anxiety and decreased quality of life [ 5 ]. Economic violence affects psychological and physical health through the stress associated with poverty and the facing of an uncertain financial future [ 29 ].
It is associated with economic abuse, financial difficulties, psychological problems, and depression. Financial difficulty and dependence represent ificant obstacles to women leaving violent relationships [ 21 ]. Women who have experienced emotional or economic violence without physical or sexual violence in the past are more likely to report symptoms such as anxiety or grief, Canakkale single women due to feelings of worthlessness, wanting to cry for no reason, mood swings, bad temper, insomnia and persistent fatigue than women who have not reported IPV throughout all their lives [ 7 ].
It is important to note that the relationship between poverty and economic abuse is complicated [ 37 ]. Poverty and socioeconomic inequality are both causes and consequences of economic abuse [ 2638 ]. Poor women are more likely to be dependent on their male partners, Canakkale single women such dependency can be used as a tactic to control women, and this situation may lead to abuse [ 37 ]. Economic violence is a very powerful and deadly form of abuse.
It is also a form of discrimination against women [ 26 ].
Economic abuse can result in rising poverty, a known and ificant indicator of poor health among women in all populations. Poor women have limited life options and can be forced to live in environments that increase their vulnerability to diseases [ 31 ]. Studies have shown a strong relation between poverty conditions and poor physical and psychological health [ 22 ]. Economic coercion has traumatic effects on women including feelings of, humiliation and a distorted sense of self, and it in in limited opportunities and fewer chances for a better quality of life [ 10 ].
It creates high demand for commercial sex by relatively rich men and a desire to break the poverty cycle of young women by any means necessary; therefore women may commercialize their bodies as a means of rapid enrichment [ 26 ]. Economic abuse can increase the risk of Canakkale single women forms of violence, including physical, emotional, and sexual violence.
Scientific studies show strong positive relationships between economic abuse and both physical and emotional violence [ 373840 ]. Economic abuse tends to occur along with other forms of violence and may coincide as part of controlling behavior [ 38 ].
It has been found that women who are exposed to economic violence are also more likely to be affected by other types of violence psychological, physical, or sexual [ 39 ]. Economic abuse can be equally severe, with ificant consequences on the health of victims [ 31 Canakkale single women. Economic violence are different from other forms of IPV physical, psychological, and sexual violencebut is moderately associated with them [ 1739 — 41 ].
Victims who are exposed to a form of violence physical, psychological, or sexual are probably exposed to economic violence as well [ 535 ]. Women are exposed to economic violence and physical violence more than men [ 24 ]; in addition, the risk of those who are exposed to economic violence to be exposed to physical violence are higher than those who have not experienced economic violence [ 34 ]. Economic abuse is more common among women who experience IPV and activity restriction [ 36 ]. For this reason, the struggle against violence towards women has not only taken place within the borders of nations but has also gained an international dimension [ 13 ].
Different studies conducted in Turkey in recent years show that one in three women have been exposed to violence at some point in their life. Although the lack of legal data on violence against women in limited information on whether violence against women is increasing or not, high figures show that this is a multidimensional social problem fed by structural dynamics [ 9 ]. Economic violence in Turkey also varies by profession Canakkale single women region.
In a study conducted in Manisa, it was found that It was found in a study conducted in Konya, that Domestic violence against women is a major social problem arising from unequal power relationships between men and women [ 45 ]. Turkish society has a traditional, patriarchal structure in which the culture has different hierarchies and different areas of activity for men and women [ 50 ].
The role of the husband is authoritarian, and the husband has the right to use all means to support his family, while the role of the woman is to look after family members and her husband [ 52 ]. In patriarchal societies, such as Turkish society, it is believed that the economic management of the family is in the hands of men. This belief can result in a higher rate of economic abuse [ 42 ].
A broad spectrum of literature on Turkey provides evidence that social norms related to gender roles have a ificant effect on society, especially women. Traditional social norms regarding gender roles have a growing effect on IPV [ 53 ]. Social norms in Turkey also affect attitudes towards spouse abuse. In Turkish culture, spouse abuse is considered acceptable and a private family matter that should not be discussed with others [ 50 ]. Women want to hide the violence they are exposed to, as it is thought that these should stay in a more private space [ 54 ].
Statistics reflecting a high level of violence in Turkey reveals that the problem is a social problem fed by gender inequality, socioeconomic situation and patriarchal cultural bias [ 55 ]. The gender ideology of Turkey can be understood by looking at the state of women in education and employment, their positions inside and outside home, and observing how these positions reflect social practices [ 56 ].
Like any socio-cultural structure, Turkish society also has its own social values. In the Turkish Canakkale single women structure, there are social values that teach and legitimize violence and make people desensitized towards it.
Social norms also affect the division of labor between men and women in Turkey. For example, men are expected to be responsible for farm-related tasks, physically heavy work, and outside relationships. On the other hand, women are responsible for housework, gardening, and pet and child care. The main reason that violence against women has been allowed to increase has been proven to be the great imbalance of power and control that exists between men and women in a society strongly affected by the patriarchal worldview [ 10 ].
Little is known about economic violence in Turkey. Research on economic violence against women in Turkey is very limited.
As far as we know, this is the first study known to determine the factors affecting economic violence against women in all around Turkey. In this study, the research questions focused on the state of economic violence of women living in Turkey are as follows:.
Research Question 2: How are the women in this study experiencing economic violence according to various factors?
Research Question 3: Do sociodemographic and economic conditions of women affect the state of economic violence? Research Question 5: Is there a relationship between economic violence and other types of violence? Among non-physical types of violence, Canakkale single women violence, despite its potential ificance, has not been adequately studied globally. Until now, limited empirical research has been conducted on the links and consequences of economic violence [ 418253957 ]. In recent years scales have been developed, tested and revised by scholars to measure economic violence [ 517 — 1922 — 24 Canakkale single women.
Looking at the studies conducted, the prevalence of economic violence varies between countries. It was found in a study conducted in Poland that 8. In a study conducted in the Philippines, it was stated that the prevalence of economic abuse ranged from 1. In a study conducted in Australia, it was found that prevalence of economic abuse over a lifetime was In another study conducted with micro-entrepreneur women in Peru, it was found that Women with low levels of education were found to be more likely to suffer economic abuse [ 363960 ].
In contrast to these studies, another study also states that compared to women who attended fewer years of schools, those who attended more years of school are just more likely to report economic violence [ 25 ]. Economic violence is linked to low income [ 3639444547 ]. Having a higher standard of household living reduces the likelihood of economic violence and any IPV occurring together [ 25 ].
It has been found that a ificant proportion of women who report economic violence from their spouses have a lower family income and those who are non-working women than those who do not experience violence [ 62 ]. Factors such as financial stress and financial resilience are also associated with economic violence [ 36 ]. A study conducted with older adults found that older adults who were financially independent are less likely to suffer psychological and economic violence [ 49 ].
The labor situation variable has an effect on economic violence [ 36 ]. Unemployment is ificantly associated with forms of economic abuse [ 38 ]. Lack of economic independence is an effective factor for economic violence [ 49 ]. There is a ificant correlation between the age of women and their exposure to economic violence [ 3644 ]. In particular, it was found that women who reported economic abuse by an intimate partner were older and younger women were less likely to report economic abuse [ 2540 ]. In a study conducted, experts stated that young adults experience economic abuse, negative economic conflict, and economic control.Canakkale single women
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