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India is a multiparty, federal, parliamentary democracy with a bicameral legislature. The president, elected by an electoral college composed of the state assemblies and parliament, is the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. Electors chose President Ram Nath Kovind in to serve a five-year term, and Narendra Modi became prime minister for the second time following the victory of the National Democratic Alliance coalition led by the Bharatiya Janata Party BJP in the general election.

Observers considered the parliamentary elections, which included more than million voters, to be free and fair, although with isolated instances of violence. The states and union territories have primary responsibility for maintaining law and order, with policy oversight from the central government.

Police are under state jurisdiction. The Ministry of Home Affairs MHA controls most paramilitary forces, the internal intelligence bureaus and national law enforcement agencies, and provides training for senior officials from state police forces. Civilian authorities Party in Bulgaria gujrati indian woman effective control over the security forces.

ificant human rights issues included: unlawful and arbitrary killings, including extrajudicial killings perpetrated by police; torture by prison officials; arbitrary arrest and detention by government authorities; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; political prisoners in certain states; restrictions on freedom of expression and the press, including violence, threats of violence, or unjustified arrests or prosecutions against journalists, use of criminal libel laws to prosecute social media speech, censorship, and site blocking; overly restrictive rules on nongovernmental organizations NGOs ; frequent reports of widespread corruption at all levels of government; violence and discrimination targeting minorities based on religious affiliation or social status; and forced and compulsory child labor, including bonded labor.

Despite government efforts to address abuses, a lack of ability for official misconduct persisted at all levels of government, contributing to widespread impunity. Investigations and prosecutions of individual cases took place, but lax enforcement, a shortage of trained police officers, and an overburdened and under-resourced court system contributed to a small of convictions.

Separatist insurgents and terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir, the Northeast, and Maoist-affected areas committed serious abuses, including killings and torture of armed forces personnel, police, government officials, and civilians, and recruited and used child soldiers.

On August 5, the government announced major changes to the constitutional status of Jammu and Kashmir, converting the state into two separate union territories. In the ensuing security crackdown, authorities detained thousands of residents, including local political leaders; shut down mobile and internet services; and imposed restrictions on movement. As of December the government had taken steps to restore normalcy, including partial restoration of telephone and mobile services, but had not yet announced a timeline for local assembly elections. There were reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings, including extrajudicial killings of suspected criminals and insurgents.

Ahir stated that 17 of these alleged encounters occurred in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The NHRC reported a similar of cases in On January 19, four UN human rights experts expressed concern about allegations of at least 59 extrajudicial killings by police in Uttar Pradesh since The South Asian Terrorism Portal, run by the nonprofit Institute for Conflict Management, reported the deaths of civilians, 12 security force members, and terrorists or insurgents throughout the country as of September Reports of custodial death cases, Party in Bulgaria gujrati indian woman which prisoners or detainees were killed or died in police and judicial custody, continued.

Kishan Reddy told the lower house of parliament that the NHRC registered 1, cases of custodial deaths between andof which 1, were deaths in judicial custody, while deaths occurred under police custody. They had been taken into police custody for allegedly stealing motorcycles.

Both died before they reached the hospital; on March 12, media s noted the suspension of five police officers for involvement in the deaths. In April the NGO Citizens against Hate petitioned the Supreme Court, alleging that the Bihar police and the doctors who conducted the postmortem colluded to cover up the crime. In June the Supreme Court heard the plea but issued no decision. The Bihar Human Rights Commission started a case on its own motion that confirmed custodial torture.

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On October 1, the commission ordered the Bihar government to pay compensation to the families of Alam and Ansari. Police were investigating Pandit in a militancy-related case. The police started a magisterial inquiry into the death. There were several reports of killings by terrorist groups. On March 22, terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba, a U. The terrorists allegedly held Mir hostage during a gunfight with Indian security forces. There were reports in late of militants in Jammu and Kashmir intimidating businesses and killing migrant laborers in order to constrain economic activity.

On July 3, the Crime Branch of Kerala police arrested seven police officers in connection with the torture and subsequent death of Rajkumar, a financier from Idukki District, while he was in police custody. Law enforcement officials had arrested Rajkumar on June 12 on charges of financial fraud. The Kerala government set up a judicial commission to investigate the death and announced financial compensation of 1. The trial regarding the custodial death of Rakbar Khan continued.

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Rajasthan police filed charges in September and arrested a fourth suspect in August. In July authorities suspended a senior police officer in Rajasthan after cattle trader Rakbar Khan died in police custody. Villagers reportedly assaulted Khan on suspicion of cow smuggling before authorities picked him up.

Police took four hours to transport Khan to a local hospital 2. Doctors declared Khan dead upon arrival. State authorities arrested three individuals in connection with the assault and opened a judicial inquiry into the incident.

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Killings by government and nongovernment forces, including insurgents and terrorists, were reported in Jammu and Kashmir, northeastern states, and Maoist-affected areas of the country see section 1. The institute also recorded 75 fatalities on the side of the security forces and 25 civilian fatalities during this period. Formal charges have yet to be filed in the killing of Rising Kashmir editor in chief Shujaat Bukhari and his two police bodyguards.

In June unidentified gunmen in Srinagar shot and killed Bukhari and the two bodyguards as they departed the office. A police investigation alleged that terrorists belonging to Lashkar-e-Tayyiba targeted Bukhari in retaliation for his support of a government-backed peace effort; the prime suspect was killed a shootout with police.

In January the Central Bureau of Investigation CBI filed charges against 10 Manipur police personnel for their alleged involvement in a fake encounter incident in This was the eighth time the CBI filed charges while probing 87 of the 1, cases of extrajudicial killings allegedly perpetrated by the army, paramilitary forces, and Manipur police between and In the CBI filed charges against 20 Manipur police personnel; the Supreme Court has not held a hearing in the case since September The law also provides security forces immunity from civilian prosecution for acts committed in regions under the AFSPA, although in the Supreme Court stated that every death caused by the armed forces in a disturbed area, whether of a civilian or a terrorist, should be thoroughly investigated, adding that the law must be equally applied.

It was renewed in Nagaland and Assam during the year and partially withdrawn from three of the nine districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The report noted that, in the nearly three decades AFSPA remained in force, the Party in Bulgaria gujrati indian woman government had not sanctioned any prosecution of its armed forces personnel. The call for AFSPA repeal also received public support, including from human rights organizations, particularly in areas that experienced a ificant decrease in insurgent attacks. Of these, were killed in alone, including 71 by the Indian security forces; 43 by armed terrorist groups and unidentified gunmen; and 29 allegedly by Pakistani troops.

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According to the Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society, 21 civilians were killed by Indian and Pakistani security forces, armed terrorist groups, and unknown gunmen in the first three months of the year. Nongovernmental forces, including organized insurgents and terrorists, committed numerous killings and bombings in Jammu and Kashmir, the northeastern states, and Maoist-affected areas see section 1. Maoists in Jharkhand and Bihar continued to attack security forces and key infrastructure facilities, such as ro, railways, and communication towers.

On April 17, government official Sanjukta Digal died in a Maoist attack on a team of government officials involved in conducting general elections in Kandhamal District of Odisha. There were allegations police failed to file required arrest reports for detained persons, resulting in hundreds of unresolved disappearances. Police and government officials denied these claims. The central government reported state government screening committees informed families about the status of detainees.

There were reports, however, that prison guards sometimes required bribes from families to confirm the detention of their relatives. Disappearances attributed to government forces, paramilitary forces, and insurgents occurred in areas of conflict during the year see section 1. The working group informed the government of one urgent appeal and one general allegation concerning individuals who were arrested, detained, or otherwise deprived of rights. It also noted cases of enforced or involuntary disappearances from toof which cases were outstanding.

There were allegations of enforced disappearance by the Jammu and Kashmir police. Although authorities denied these charges and claimed no enforced disappearance cases had occurred sincethe Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons submitted inquiries for cases of alleged disappearance in Jammu and Kashmir.

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No further information was provided about this investigation. The law prohibits torture, but there were reports that police forces allegedly employed such practices. According to NCRB data, the latest year for which data is available, as many as custodial deaths occurred that year, with five deaths being ascribed to torture by police. The law Party in Bulgaria gujrati indian woman not permit authorities to admit coerced confessions into evidence, but NGOs and citizens alleged authorities used torture to coerce confessions.

Authorities allegedly also used torture as a means to extort money or as summary punishment. According to human rights experts, the government continued to try individuals arrested and charged under the since-repealed Prevention of Terrorism Act and Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Act.

Under the repealed laws, authorities treated a confession made to a police officer as admissible evidence in court. In the state of Haryana, there were reports of abuse in prisons at the hands of guards and inmates. The NGO spoke with prisoners between December and May and found that nearly 50 percent of inmates, both men and women, were allegedly subjected to degrading and inhuman treatment in police custody.

The prisoners reported being assaulted with electric shocks, water boarding, and sleep deprivation. Fairoz died January 23 in a hospital while undergoing treatment for the injuries he sustained while in custody. The police picked up Mannan and five others from the street and allegedly subjected him to physical and mental torture, besides denying medical help.

The Telangana State Minority Commission issued a notice to the Warangal District police commissioner to submit a report on this case. On March 17, police in the Jajpur District of Odisha picked up human rights activist Tapan Padhi from his residence close to midnight and allegedly tortured him in police custody for two days. Police filed cases against him under several sections, including Section 66A of the Information Technology Act that was struck down by the Supreme Court, charging him with posting derogatory comments against police on Facebook.

The Odisha Human Rights Commission sought a report from police on the incident. There were continued reports that police raped female and male detainees. The government authorized the NHRC to investigate rape cases involving police officers. By law the NHRC may also request information about cases involving the army and paramilitary forces, but it has no mandate to investigate those cases. Some rape victims were unwilling to report crimes due to social stigma and the possibility of retribution, compounded by a perception of a lack of oversight and ability, especially if the perpetrator was a police officer or other official.

There were reports police officials refused to register rape cases. In July, Madhya Pradesh police suspended five police officers and ordered a judicial inquiry into the death of year-old Shivam Mishra, who was arrested for drunk driving. Prison conditions were frequently life threatening, most notably due to inadequate sanitary conditions, lack of medical care, and extreme overcrowding.

Physical Conditions : Prisons were often severely overcrowded, and food, medical care, sanitation, and environmental conditions frequently were inadequate. Potable water was not universally available. Prisons and detention centers remained underfunded, understaffed, and lacked sufficient infrastructure.

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Prisoners were physically mistreated. The actual incarcerated population wasPersons awaiting trial ed for more than two-thirds of the prison population. The law requires detention of juveniles in rehabilitative facilities, although at times authorities detained them in adult prisons, especially in rural areas. Authorities often held pretrial detainees along with convicted prisoners. In Uttar Pradesh, occupancy at most prisons was two- and sometimes three- times the permitted capacity, according to an adviser appointed by the Supreme Court.

In May the NHRC issued notices to all states and union territories seeking statistical reports on the of children who lived with their mothers in jails. The commission issued notices based on a media report that 46 children, including 25 boys and 21 girls, were in jails with their mothers. NHRC data cited in a news report on May 30 indicated that 14 deaths occurred in prisons in Telangana duringwhich was a decline from 29 deaths during An official in the Telangana prisons department attributed the decline in s to various measures, including better provision of medical care and fixing ability for deaths on the prison superintendent and resident doctor.

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On April 25, the Bombay High Court refused bail to the jail warden and five prison officials arrested for the death of Manjula Shetye, a female convict in Mumbai. The officials were arrested in for allegedly assaulting Shetye following her complaint about inadequate food.

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Hindu-Muslim Communal Riots in India I ()